Bachelor of Information Technology - Course Descriptions

Please note that complete course specifications can be found in the attachments below.

Required Courses

Course Title

Fundamental of Mathematics

Course Code

202126-3

Credit Hours

3

Prerequisite

--

Course Description

The course presents fundamental concepts and reasoning, distilled from mathematics science and other computational sciences, for types of proofs, Induction, number theory, Relations, Sums, Approximations, and Asymptotic, counting and functions.

 

 

Course Title

Introduction to Problem Solving

Course Code

501110-2

Credit Hours

2

Prerequisite

--

Course Description

The course presents fundamental concepts of problem-solving techniques in computer science and other computational sciences. Topics include Problem solving approaches and process, Arithmetic Expression, Debugging, Decision structures, Repetition Structures.

 

 

Course Title

Computer Skills

Course Code

501112-2

Credit Hours

2

Prerequisite

--

Course Description

The course presents fundamental skills in Basic Computer Operations, Computer Core, Word Processing/Desktop Publishing, Spreadsheet/Graphing, Database, presentations, Telecommunications, E-Mail, Web Browsing, Online Research, Social Legal and Ethical issues.

 

 

Course Title

General Biology

Course Code

2011211-3

Credit Hours

3

Prerequisite

--

Course Description

Studying the concepts of ecology and environmental pollution. Also, this course discusses the principles and commercial applications of biotechnology to environmental problems. The course is structured to promote self-learning and students' development of Biotech solutions to real-life problems. Biotechnology is not just genes! Individual subject areas include the use of biotechnology to clean up or 'bioremediation' polluted environments as well as the economic recovery of important minerals and precious metals. Furthermore, the application of biological systems in preventing pollution by supporting our planet's sustainable development is also explored in subject areas such as biofuels. The controversial issues of agricultural biotechnology are also examined in this course.

 

 

Course Title

General Chemistry

Course Code

204124-2

Credit Hours

2

Prerequisite

--

Course Description

Introduction (Matter and Measurement), Atoms, Molecules, and Ions, Chemical Reactions and Reaction Stoichiometry, Aqueous Reactions and Solution Stoichiometry, Thermochemistry, Electronic Structure of Atoms, Periodic Properties of the Elements, Basic Concepts of Chemical Bonding, Molecular Geometries and Bonding Theories, Gases.

 

 

Course Title

Scientific Computing

Course Code

501125-2

Credit Hours

2

Prerequisite

--

Course Description

The course introduces the practical aspects of scientific computing where students will be exposed to fundamental coding elements and concepts to solve a wide range of computing and engineering problems.

 

 

Course Title

Computer Aided Drawing

Course Code

503121-1

Credit Hours

1

Prerequisite

--                                                                                         

Course Description

This course focuses on using AutoCAD program, introductory descriptive geometry, orthographic, deducing the missed view, and dimensioning.

 

 

Course Title

Calculus (1)

Course Code

202261-3

Credit Hours

3

Prerequisite

--

Course Description

This course teaches the concepts and techniques of limits, differentiation and integration and their application to problems in science and engineering.

 

 

Course Title

Physics (1)

Course Code

203206-4

Credit Hours

4

Prerequisite

--

Course Description

This course introduces systems of units, dimensional analysis, Vector and scalar Quantities, Motion in One Dimension, Newton’s Laws of Motion, Work, Energy and momentum, Electric field, Electric Potential, Electric current, Capacitance, Direct and Alternating Current circuits, Geometrical optics.

 

 

Course Title

Discrete Structures

Course Code

501215-3

Credit Hours

3

Prerequisite

--

Course Description

Introduce propositional logic, predicates, quantifiers; sets, functions, sequences; proof strategy, induction, recursion; relations, equivalence relations, partial orders; basic counting techniques, permutation and combination, introduction to graph, trees, and computation models.

 

 

Course Title

Computer Programming (1)

Course Code

501220-3

Credit Hours

3

Prerequisite

--

Course Description

Introduce the fundamental concepts of programming and problem-solving techniques. Topics include data types, control structures, arrays, pointers, and the mechanics of running, testing, and debugging.

 

 

Course Title

Calculus (2)

Course Code

202263-3

Credit Hours

3

Prerequisite

202261-3

Course Description

This course reinforces and extends the concepts and techniques of limits, differentiation and integration of functions taught in Calculus (1) and introduces the concept of sequences and series and their application to problems in science and engineering.

 

 

Course Title

Physics (2)

Course Code

203207-4

Credit Hours

4

Prerequisite

203206-4

Course Description

This course covers the following topics: magnetic fields, sources of magnetic field, The Biot-Savart Law, Ampere's Law, Gauss's Law in magnetism, Inductance, Faraday's Law of Induction, RL Circuits, mutual inductance, RLC circuit, and alternating current circuits.

 

 

Course Title

Computer Programming (2)

Course Code

501222-3

Credit Hours

3

Prerequisite

501220-3

Course Description

This course is a continuation of 501220-3 Computer Programming (1). It extends programming concepts to include functions, pointers, functions and arrays, string manipulation, file handling, and introducing object-oriented programming.

 

 

Course Title

Digital Logic Design

Course Code

503221-4

Credit Hours

4

Prerequisite

501215-3

Course Description

This course covers many basic topics such as numbering systems, Boolean algebra, simplification using Boolean algebra and Karnaugh maps, and different logic gates. The course also deals with analysis and synthesis of combinational circuits, e.g., adders, encoders, decoders, multiplexers and demultiplexers. Flip‐flops and Sequential circuits such as registers, counters, and other basic also presented. The course prepares the students to apply the above basic skills to design, implement, and test digital logic circuits in the laboratory.

 

 

Course Title

Linear Algebra

Course Code

202262-3

Credit Hours

3

Prerequisite

--

Course Description

This course is an introduction to Linear Algebra during a study of linear systems of equations and its solutions methods, and a study of Matrices, determinants, operations on matrices and Eigenvalues and Eigenvectors. Finally, a simple introduction to Vector spaces.

 

 

Course Title

Probability and Statistics

Course Code

202364-3

Credit Hours

3

Prerequisite

202261-3

Course Description

Statistical methods and the application of probability theory are essential to the understanding of data and underlying processes in many fields of sciences and engineering. This course provides an introduction to probability and statistics concepts with applications for students who would like to have careers in the Computer Science and Computer Engineering. Topics include sample space, events, random variables, expectation and moments, combinatorial probability, conditional probability, discrete and continuous distributions, discrete and continuous probability density functions, functions of random variables, sampling distributions, introduction to stochastic processes, statistical inference, estimation and test of hypotheses.

 

 

Course Title

Objected-Oriented Programming

Course Code

501323-3

Credit Hours

3

Prerequisite

501222-3

Course Description

Introduce Object-Oriented concepts and techniques such as classes, interfaces, encapsulation, inheritance, and polymorphism using one or more object-oriented languages. Study UML, software design methodologies and design patterns.

 

 

Course Title

Data Structures

Course Code

501324-3

Credit Hours

3

Prerequisite

501222-3

Course Description

This course introduces students to development, implementation, and analysis of efficient data structures and algorithms. Topics include analysis of sorting and searching algorithms and abstract data types such as stacks, queues, linked list, trees, graphs, and hash tables.

 

 

Course Title

Fundamentals of Database

Course Code

502372-3

Credit Hours

3

Prerequisite

501220-3

Course Description

This course will introduce the basic concepts in database systems and architectures, including data models, database design, and database implementation. Its emphasis on topics in ER model and relational databases, including relational data model, SQL, functional dependency and normalization, database design process.

 

 

Course Title

Web Systems

Course Code

502315-3

Credit Hours

3

Prerequisite

502372-3 and 501222-3

Course Description

Introduce students to Web programming technologies to create static and dynamic Web pages using databases. Topics include web servers, HTML, CSS3, Java Script and PHP using MySQL.

 

 

Course Title

Fundamentals of Operating Systems

Course Code

502321-3

Credit Hours

3

Prerequisite

501324-3

Course Description

This course provides an introduction to the fundamentals of operating systems. Topics include operating system components; concurrency, mutual exclusion and synchronization, CPU scheduling algorithms, deadlock, and memory management.

 

 

Course Title

Systems Analysis & Design

Course Code

502361-3

Credit Hours

3

Prerequisite

501323-3

Course Description

Fundamentals of system development methodologies, techniques and tools. Exposure to planning tools: Details of analysis and design tools and techniques: data flow diagrams, data dictionary, entity-relationship diagrams, process specifications, structure chart. Principles of user interface design. Practice of analysis and design through case studies. Use of CASE Tools in system planning, analysis and design. Emphasis on front-end SDLC phases of planning, analysis and design using traditional and Object-Oriented approach of system development.

 

 

Course Title

Database Management Systems

Course Code

502373-3

Credit Hours

3

Prerequisite

502372-3

Course Description

This course will introduce the basic concepts database management systems, including file structure and indexing techniques, query processing, query concurrency, recovery techniques, transaction protocols and database security fundamentals.

 

 

Course Title

IT in Organizations

Course Code

502333-3

Credit Hours

3

Prerequisite

--

Course Description

This course concentrate on the following knowledge and skills, what is an information system and what are its management, organization, and technology dimensions? Why are information systems so essential in businesses today? Why are systems for collaboration and teamwork so important? How can information systems help businesses become more competitive? What broader ethical and social issues are raised by widespread use of information systems? This course answers questions such as: What technologies do businesses today need to accomplish their work? What do I need to know about these technologies to make sure they enhance the performance of the firm? How are these technologies likely to change in the future?

 

 

Course Title

Systems Administration

Course Code

502420-3

Credit Hours

3

Prerequisite

502321-3

Course Description

This course focuses on administration of operating systems in a client-server technology (Windows and Linux on virtual machine), installation and maintenance. It prepares students to installation of Windows Server, NTFS file system and folder permissions, Domain Name System, Active Directory, local and domain Group Policy, Windows Terminal Services, Internet Security and Acceleration Server, Internet Information Services, communications, and networking. An introduction to Linux, terminal, working with Windows, system administration, configuration of server: WWW, DHCP, DNS, Samba, NFS, emails and printers.

 

 

Course Title

Software Engineering

Course Code

502435-3

Credit Hours

3

Prerequisite

502361-3

Course Description

Introduces to different aspects of software development for reliable systems. Study of software development process models, project management techniques, modeling notations, requirement analysis, architecture design methods, and testing techniques.

 

 

Course Title

Data Warehouse

Course Code

502478-3

Credit Hours

3

Prerequisite

502372-3 and 202364-3

Course Description

Data warehousing has drawn increasing interest within the software enterprises to gain critical insights of daily business analytic operations. Data warehouse is a tool providing comprehensive analysis of operational data and to identify patterns. This course provides an introduction to fundamental techniques and novel applications of data warehouse. Issues covered by this learning experience include data warehouse fundamentals, planning, business analytics modeling, data warehouse design and implementation. In particular, the role of data warehouse in supporting business intelligence and effective decision making. Further, it involves an in-depth study of various concepts needed to design and develop a data warehouse. This course is designed to expose students to concepts, enabling methods and hands-on usage and problem solving in an integrated way. As one of IS depth electives, it provides a good balance between theory and practice. The participants will explore applications and have great opportunity for hands-on experimentation with data warehousing and reporting tools.

 

 

Course Title

Fundamentals of Networks

Course Code

502482-3

Credit Hours

3

Prerequisite

502321-3

Course Description

The aim of this course is to present the basic concepts of computer networks: Motivations, topologies, network hardware, types, and applications. The Open System Interconnection (OSI) reference model and TCP/IP protocol suite will be demonstrated. Moreover, the data link layer that contains Data framing, Error control, flow control, MAC protocols (ALOHA, CSMA/CD, Token Passing, etc.). In addition, an overview about Local Area Networks (LANs) such as standards (IEEE 802.x), Ethernet technology, and Wireless LANs will be present. Furthermore, the network layer that comprises IP protocol in addition to routing protocols will be introduced. The two famous transport layer protocols, Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) and User Datagram Protocol will be recognized. Finally, the application layer protocols such as Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP), Simple Mail Transport Protocol (SMTP), and File Transport Protocol (FTP) will be presented.

 

 

 

Course Title

Professional Ethics

Course Code

500321-2

Credit Hours

2

Prerequisite

990414-2 Islamic Culture (Human Rights)

Course Description

The course intends to cover the computer crime (viruses, worms, Trojan horses, hacking) and the ways to implementing computer ethics (computer professionals and social responsibility). Also, the software copyright, piracy, privacy, security, and civil liberties and some selected topics such: Philosophical Foundations of Ethics, Ethics, Ethical Dissent and Whistleblowing. Monopolies and their Economic, Social and Ethical Implications. This course provides a general overview of the social and ethical issues in computing. Students will learn about the impacts on and implications of the development, management and use of technology in various aspects. Emphasis is given to the issues which are relevant to the field of Information Systems.

 

 

Course Title

Web Services

Course Code

502449-3

Credit Hours

3

Prerequisite

502315-3

Course Description

This course will introduce the major concepts and techniques for enabling Web service- based interactions on the Web. Topics include various aspects of Web services such as reference models for Web services (UDDI, SOAP, WSDL), Web service composition, semantic Web services, security/privacy in Web services, and overview of Web service standards (BPEL4WS, WS-Security, etc.). The course also puts emphasis on familiarizing the students with the recent trends in industry and academia to address Web service research issues.

 

 

Course Title

Computer Systems Security

Course Code

502459-3

Credit Hours

3

Prerequisite

502482-3

Course Description

This course introduces the basic security attacks against computer systems and the different techniques to overcome these attacks. Besides, this course explains the different modern encryption mechanisms and protocols (including symmetric and public key cryptography). Moreover, it examines the different security services such as authentication and access control. Finally, this course introduces an overview to network security and the tools used to secure networks such as the firewall, proxy and intrusion detection systems. Students will learn about tools for defending against attacks, and methods for designing secure systems.

 

 

Course Title

IT Project Management

Course Code

502462-3

Credit Hours

3

Prerequisite

502333-3

Course Description

This course focuses on project management fundamentals and strategies. It presents the concepts of project charter, project management plan and human aspects of project management. It also introduces project implementation issues, management of IT projects from initiating, planning, executing, controlling, reporting, and closing a project. It presents the concepts of project integration, scope, time, cost, quality control, communication, and risk management.  It also tackles the issues of Software size and cost estimation.

 

 

Course Title

Software Architecture

Course Code

502464-3

Credit Hours

3

Prerequisite

502435-3

Course Description

This course introduces basic concepts and principles about software architecture and software architecture design. Practical approaches and methods for creating and analyzing software architecture are presented with emphasis on the interaction between quality attributes and software architecture. Students will also gain experiences with examples in design pattern application and case studies in software architectures.

 

 

Course Title

Information Management

Course Code

502474-3

Credit Hours

3

Prerequisite

502333-3

Course Description

This course builds on what the students learnt in IT in organization course. This course examines the core information system applications businesses are using today to improve operational excellence and decision making. These applications include enterprise systems; systems for supply chain management, customer relationship management, collaboration, and knowledge management; e-commerce applications; and decision-support systems. This course answers questions such as: How can enterprise applications improve business performance? How do firms use e-commerce to extend the reach of their businesses? How can systems improve collaboration and decision making and help companies make better use of their knowledge assets? This course focuses on building and managing systems in organizations. This course answers questions such as: What activities are required to build a new information system? What alternative approaches are available for building system solutions? How should information systems projects be managed to ensure that new systems provide genuine business benefits and work successfully in the organization? What issues must be addressed when building and managing global systems?

 

 

Course Title

System Integration and Architecture

Course Code

502510-3

Credit Hours

3

Prerequisite

502449-3

Course Description

This course studies the process of integrating different systems and software applications by examining current and emerging trends, strategies, and techniques for developing systems integration solutions effectively. Example topics covered include, but are not limited to: documenting integration requirements using business process models, designing integration solutions reusing patterns, and implementing integration solutions using service oriented architecture. Students will extend course topics via library assignments, programming assignments, tool evaluation assignments, and other assigned activities.

 

 

Course Title

Human Computer Interaction

Course Code

502536-3

Credit Hours

3

Prerequisite

502435-3

Course Description

The term “Human factors” relates to both how people interact with technology, and the ways in which technology can affect people’s performance. This course provides an introduction to human factors related to the design of information systems. The emphasis is on the human component of human-computer interaction (HCI), and the process of user-centered design and evaluation. In general, lectures will be interactive, combining in-class discussions with small group problem-solving exercises.

 

 

Course Title

Network Servers and Infrastructure

Course Code

502583-3

Credit Hours

3

Prerequisite

502482-3

Course Description

This course focuses on describing and designing the LAN/WAN technologies and devices. The course provides comprehensive details of network server protocols and routing algorithms required for connectivity procedures.  It aims to introduce students to the fundamental techniques used in implementing network communications. The students will have some practical experience in applying these protocols in within a given design of a networked systems.

 

 

Course Title

Field Experience

Course Code

502595-2

Credit Hours

2

Prerequisite

--

Course Description

This is tries to Provide students with practical experience, help the student to adapt the work environment, help the student to take responsibility, Linking theoretical study with the practical reality, skills to communicate with others and listen to their opinions and discussion, provide an opportunity for companies/institutions to identify distinctive cadres in order to attract when they graduate to work, gain the skill of writing preparation of technical reports and gain experience of engineers, technicians and identify their working lives.

 

 

Course Title

Capstone Project (1)

Course Code

502598-3

Credit Hours

3

Prerequisite

502361-3 and 502315-3 and 999808-2 English for Specific Purpose (2)

Course Description

This course provides students with the opportunity to apply the knowledge acquired during their studies. The students extend their academic experiments of leadership into areas of personal interest and demonstrate their ability to work as a team to accomplish the project. The teams demonstrate their ability to analyze, synthesize, design, and evaluate information. During the second semester, the software and/or hardware implementation takes place followed by the testing and verification phases. Finally, the students should submit a comprehensive report about their achievements to the IT department.

 

 

Course Title

Advanced Topics in Networks

Course Code

502584-3

Credit Hours

3

Prerequisite

502482-3

Course Description

The aim of this course is to present them concepts which are related to networks interconnection: Motivations, TCP Protocol (TCP characteristics, TCP services (error control, flow control, sequencing, etc.), TCP Segment, TCP Applications, etc.) should be demonstrated. Furthermore, UDP Protocol: Application identification (port, socket), UDP characteristics, UDP Datagram, UDP Applications, etc.) should be presented. Also, Multimedia Internetwork protocols such as RTP, RTCP, RTSP, etc. will be demonstrated. Furthermore, high speed networks motivations, interconnection equipment’s, and technologies: X25, FR, ATM, DSL, PPP, etc. will be introduced. Also, wireless technologies will be discussed. Finally, a most recent topic in wireless communication should be selected and presented.

 

 

Course Title

Capstone Project (2)

Course Code

502599-3

Credit Hours

3

Prerequisite

502598-3

Course Description

This course provides students with the opportunity to apply the knowledge acquired during their studies. The students extend their academic experiments of leadership into areas of personal interest and demonstrate their ability to work as a team to accomplish the project. The teams demonstrate their ability to analyze, synthesize, design, and evaluate information. During the second semester, the software and/or hardware implementation takes place followed by the testing and verification phases. Finally, the students should submit a comprehensive report about their achievements to the IT department.

Elective Courses

Course Title

Network Security

Course Code

5025551-3

Credit Hours

3

Prerequisite

502459-3

Course Description

This course focuses on basic concepts in network security. It aims to introduce students to the fundamental techniques used in implementing secure network communications, and to give them an understanding of common threats and attacks. The student will have some practical experience in attacking and defending networked systems.

 

 

Course Title

Software Security

Course Code

5025552-3

Credit Hours

3

Prerequisite

502459-3

Course Description

This course introduces students to secure programming fundamentals. Topics to be covered include but not limited to: Software Security Problems, Static Analysis, Buffer Overflow, etc.

 

 

Course Title

Wireless System Security

Course Code

5025553-3

Credit Hours

3

Prerequisite

502459-3

Course Description

This course focuses on the basic concepts in security of wireless systems. First, this course will introduce the wireless systems and its components to students. Second, it gives students a good understanding of common threats and attacks that can affect wireless systems. Finally, the course introduces students to the fundamental techniques and technologies used in designing a wireless system that is robust against attacks. The student will have some practical experience in defending wireless systems.

 

 

Course Title

Advance Topics in Database

Course Code

502570-3

Credit Hours

3

Prerequisite

502478-3

Course Description

This course intends to introduce more advanced topics in databases such as distributed databases, complex data, and advanced DBMSs. The emphasis is on object-oriented database systems. The course contains a deeper treatment of the object-oriented database area that comprises an overview of object-oriented concepts, Object oriented Data Model, Comparing relational DBMSs and OODBMSs, Object orientation in Query Languages, Object oriented Database systems, Object database standards. Also, the practical exposure for object-oriented support provided by popular packages like Oracle, DB2, etc. for OODB is included in this course.

 

 

Course Title

Data Mining

Course Code

502571-3

Credit Hours

3

Prerequisite

502478-3

Course Description

This Introduces fundamental concepts and techniques in data mining. Students will develop an understanding of the data mining process and apply various techniques to solve data mining problems using data mining tools. Topics include data pre-processing, supervised and unsupervised learning approaches to classification problems, association rule mining, anomaly detection and performance measurements.

 

 

Course Title

Computer Crimes and Forensics

Course Code

5025554-3

Credit Hours

3

Prerequisite

5025551-3 or 5025552-3 or 5025553-3

Course Description

This course introduces computer crimes and legal issues related to its investigation. In this course, the student will learn procedures on tracking, analyzing, and patching security holes after an incident has occurred. This will include seizure of equipment, analysis of confiscated materials, and follow up procedures relating to the incident.

 

 

Course Title

Advanced Topics in Security

Course Code

5025555-3

Credit Hours

3

Prerequisite

5025551-3 or 5025552-3 or 5025553-3

Course Description

This course will introduce students to current state-of-the-art topics in security. Topics may vary from year to year. For example, this course may introduce IoT security, cloud networks security, Hacking techniques, etc. Moreover, students will be asked to read and present some recent research papers in the field of security by their own. Moreover, students will be asked to perform some practical projects related to the selected topics.

 

 

Course Title

Information Security Policies

Course Code

5025556-3

Credit Hours

3

Prerequisite

5025551-3 or 5025552-3 or 5025553-3

Course Description

This course studies some case in computer security. The student will be able to develop Information Technology security policies for small and large organizations with specific regard to components such as email, web servers, web browsers, firewalls, personal applications, passwords, etc. The student will have a sound understanding of the areas of Information Technology where policy development and implementation may help in reducing the effects of attack.

 

 

Course Title

Mobile Computing

Course Code

502557-3

Credit Hours

3

Prerequisite

5025551-3 or 5025552-3 or 5025553-3

Course Description

This course will introduce the concepts of mobile computing and mobile app development. It will examine the factors that differentiate mobile apps from desktop apps and considerations during mobile app development including UI design and interaction, resource constraints, and software tools. The course will also introduce different mobile operating systems, their architectures and programming models.

 

 

Course Title

Non-Traditional Database

Course Code

502575-3

Credit Hours

3

Prerequisite

502570-3 or 502571-3

Course Description

This course aims to impart skills in alternative data storage mechanisms of handling ever growing data volumes of data. The concept of all non-traditional databases is to leverage the commodity hardware to support large volume of data and parallel processing. This course aims to build on the foundations of understanding various types of non-traditional databases that support large volume of data and parallel processing, these are in general categorized as: Row-based NoSQL database, column-based NoSQL database or columnar database, document-based NoSQL database, graph database, time series database, in memory database, object-oriented, network, and triple stores.

 

 

Course Title

Special Purpose Database

Course Code

502576-3

Credit Hours

3

Prerequisite

502570-3 or 502571-3

Course Description

The course offers an introduction to the concepts, principles and theories behind Geographic Information Systems and Science (GIS), with emphasis on the nature of geographic information, data models and structures for storing geographic information, geographic data input, data manipulation and simple spatial analysis modeling techniques. The course is composed of two components: Lectures and labs.

 

 

Course Title

Big Data

Course Code

502577-3

Credit Hours

3

Prerequisite

502570-3 or 502571-3

Course Description

Big Data is the description used to encompass the huge amounts of data that is common to many businesses. The course aims to build on the principles upon which serious Big Data resources are built. All data held in Big Data resources must have a form that supports search, retrieval, and analysis. This course provides practical foundation level training that enables immediate and effective participation in Big Data and other analytics projects. It includes an introduction to Big Data and the data analytics lifecycle to address business challenges that leverage Big Data. The course provides grounding in basic and advanced analytic methods and an introduction to Big Data analytics technology and tools, including MapReduce and Hadoop which will be used to develop a range of Big Data applications. By the end of this course, student will learn analytical skills to study Big Data and to provide a solid foundation for developing solutions and applications that need to manipulate Big Data.

 

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